Why no footnotes?

Sometimes reviewers complain that my books contain no footnotes. Footnotes are a convention adopted by the academic community for purposes of research. I am not writing for academics but for ordinary folk looking for help from God's Word.
There really should be no difficulty tracking down a quotation anyway.
Take two random examples
What the Bible says about being born again p 40
"... The puritan Stephen Charnock called regeneration 'a universal change of the whole man ...' ...  it is according to Swinnock, a plaster big enough to cover the sore ... Luther described it as 'being changed and sweetly breathed on by the Spirit of God' ..."
The bibliography reveals that George Swinnock Volume 5 has been used. If you put "Swinnock, a plaster big enough to cover the sore" into Google, choose the first item offered then search using the word plaster you will easily find where he says "The plaster must be as broad as the sore".
Similarly, although Charnock on regeneration is not listed in the bibliography, put in "Charnock called regeneration "a universal change of the whole man"" choose the link to his works, then search using the phrase whole man and you will find the  exact location.
With Luther simply put in the quotation and you will find it is from Bondage of the will.
Candle in the wind p155
There are two quotations there, one at the head of the page and attributed to Ted Tripp, one in the opening paragraph, referred to as "An American writer".
"This God-given conscience is your ally ..." will be found in Google books to be on Page 119 of Shepherding a child's heart and putting in "Jimmy, if you are a good boy" into Google will give you several options including sermon.index.net where a search using the word Jimmy will reveal that the story is told by Timothy Lin.
This is a little cumbersome perhaps but please remember why the books were written in the first place.

An unenthusiastic review of Candle in the Wind

This unflattering review by Dr John Long can be found here

Choosing a book
How will you chose your next book to read?  It is a good question.  After all, it is estimated that about 2.2m books are published each year worldwide, with about 180,000 in the UK – so the potential reading list is long and the range is broad.  I tend to choose on three criteria.  First, I read mostly non-fiction, and anything obviously bioethical catches my eye.  However, I keep bioethically up-to-date by reading scientific journals, like Nature, The British Medical Journal and The Lancet, so a good generalist medical book like Atul Gawande's Being Mortal is a most welcome find.  Second, I always appreciate an ‘improving’ Christian book, like Jim Packer's Finishing Our Course with Joy – it is a neo-classic.  Third, I sometimes pick way out of my comfort zone, like Voltaire's' Candide.  I suppose my reading diet consists of about 70:20:10 from these categories.
Why then did I select Candle in the Wind?  I have long had an interest in the issue of conscience and particularly its sub-issue of conscientious objection as it occurs in medical ethics and practice such as in opposition to abortion or assisted suicide.  Not so long ago, it was accepted as entirely legitimate for a doctor or healthcare worker to excuse themselves from participation in such medical measures.  That era has now disappeared.  Conscientious objectors are becoming scarcer.  The common retort nowadays is that if your work troubles your conscience, then you should find yourself another job.

So to the chosen Candle in the Wind.  Oh dear, this is uncomfortable.  This book disappointed and even exasperated me.  I was expecting to learn so much, but ultimately I learned so little.  I can explain why under three headings.

Structure of the book
The book consists of twelve Chapters and three Appendices.  So far, so good.  However, the book has no clear and coherent theme.  It jumps from one subject to another – from theology to history to politics and so on.  Nothing wrong with that, except here the topics are arranged neither logically nor thematically.  My overall impression was that the book is an amalgam of several pieces, perhaps a magazine article, a paper for a ministers’ fraternal, an academic essay and something for a church meeting – indeed, Brady confirms this in his Preface.  The upshot is a disjointed structure, a higgledy-piggledy array of stuff.*

Moreover, the book’s targeted readership must be quite limited and towards the serious and scholarly end of the spectrum.  Therefore, thorough indexing and referencing are essential.  Yet this book has no index and virtually no references.  These omissions are inexcusable.  A decent index takes a day to construct.  If a reader wants to recall what, for example, Spurgeon, had to say, the book provides no helps.  But over and above this major criticism is the stark fact that for all the cited writers and quotations – and there are scores of them – there are no references.  I was shocked.  Simple footnotes, or endnotes, would have easily filled the void.  This omission is important for at least two reasons.  First, if the book is intended to be a significant addition to our understanding of conscience – which the blurb says is ‘a truly important subject’ – then it must follow the accepted academic practice of citing all primary and secondary sources.  It is quite insufficient to provide barely a page of A Select Bibliography at the end of the book.  Second, readers will often wish to examine, as I did, some of the quotations in their original context.  The book denies, or, at least, frustrates, such further study.  Additionally, some quoted authors are not even given their full names, let alone their dates.  Who, for example, are Hurley and Baird in a paragraph on p. 95?  Similarly, a cluster of Dr Duke, Lumpkin, John Smyth and Estep appear on p. 181.  I have no idea as to their identities and little aid in unmasking them – hurrah for the Internet!  Too much is taken for granted.  And it continues, for example, on p. 183, ‘In a famous passage Williams says …’  ‘Famous’ for whom?  This is all immensely annoying.  I felt like an outcast from some inner circle of evangelical cognoscente.

For me, there are other structural aspects that grate.  Brady has a regular habit of drawing up lists, sometimes numbered, sometimes bullet-pointed, sometimes neither.  Such prĂ©cis can be a useful device, though at times I was not sure if their content was Brady’s or the original author’s.  And while on the subject of quotations, these are sometimes apparently randomly and partially italicised, as on pp. 112 and 114.  And whereas the Chapter headings are quite expressive, the sub-headings, often single words, like Content, Deliverance? and Education are less than meaningful.  Like so many Christian books these day, this one could do with an in-depth going-over by one of that endangered species of publishing houses, the copy editor.

Furthermore, I am not keen on mixing Scripture with hymns – I find it a common, but blurring, practice in both books and preaching.  Sadly, we can all quote hymns better than Scripture.  Nor do I like one-sentence paragraphs, as on p. 123.  But now I am being nit-picky.

Style of the book
I did not find Brady’s style of writing engaging or enriching.  The plain prose plods.***  And it often left me confused.  For example, he has an annoying habit of using the word ‘thing’ instead of explaining the term in question.  Similar vagaries continue with phrases, such as, ‘in some cases’ or ‘in many countries’ without any helpful quantitative assessment – I am left hanging, I want to know more.  And he recycles a curious phrase ‘the moral record’, which may be novel, but means nothing to me.**

I came away after carefully reading, and making copious notes, profoundly disappointed.  It seemed that the book was constructed on the basis of a Google search of the word ‘conscience’ and, by hook or by crook, every example was going to be wedged somewhere into the text.  I was expecting something else.  I was hoping for a clear exegesis of conscience in all its varied colours and applications.  At the very least I was wanting a practical guide how twenty-first century Christians might reason and resolve their tender consciences when faced with the thorny issues posed by our increasingly secular and antagonistic society.  No wonder I was disappointed.

Substance of the book
So what is conscience?  Good question.  It has baffled some of the world’s greatest thinkers for over three millennia.  Brady has several stabs at defining the term by presenting clues from the apostle Paul to Charles Spurgeon to Mark Twain to John Murray and many others.  But then there is also the soul, the will, the heart, the affections, the memory and the understanding.  So what specifically is the conscience, where is it located, what is its origin, when does it begin, when is it active and so forth?  Brady presents a metaphysical miasma.  He asserts that the human conscience is God given to all (Romans 2:12-16) yet it is naturally imperfect (Titus 1:15).  Based largely on the thinking of the Puritan, Richard Sibbes, Brady plumps for this definition (p. 40), ‘Conscience is not the voice of God in a person but that person’s own voice.’  Come again!  Is it not simply our innate sense of right and wrong?  I was confused rather than clarified.  Here again the book fails.  Brady seems content to report various ideas and opinions but less willing to draw clear conclusions.  As already suggested, the book is like a thesis without a hypothesis.  I, and presumably other readers, want clarity and precision.

The book’s sub-title is, Understanding Conscience in the Light of God’s Word.  That is what made me buy it – I wanted to fill a gap in my Christian understanding.  But herein lies a biblical obstacle.  Both the Old Testament and the Gospels are silent on the matter.  True, the idea, the notion of conscience can be gleaned from, for example, Adam (Genesis 3:8, 10) and Joseph (Genesis 37:21-27) and some remarks of Jesus as in Mark 3:5 and Luke 12:57.  But the construction of a comprehensive biblical exposition of conscience looks like a strained and not overly convincing task.  Suddenly, a sizeable book on the topic appears moot.  Rescue comes by way of the Epistles because conscience is largely a Pauline word, which he uses some thirty times.  The reality is that Paul appears to have stolen the word and concept from the Greeks and filled it with Christian content.  All this made me feel somewhat disenchanted.

Nevertheless, not all was lost.  The book proceeds to examine what is a good, clear, seared, hardened conscience, how it can be educated, liberated and so on.  This is all instructive material.  It consists of biblical exegesis by Brady and mainly by other authors.  However, it was not until Chapter 6, with its sub-title of Developing conscience, that I began to engage more warmly with the book.  Chapter 9 on solving differences of conscience between weak and strong Christians is the best in the book – it is theology applied, practical doctrine, doctrinal practice.  Nevertheless, the showcase verse for every Christian has to be Hebrews 9:14, ‘How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!’  I had not grasped this majestic verse before.  I want to meditate on it, exclamation mark and all.

It seems that three modern men have driven the author’s enthusiasm for his chosen subject.  There is the American Alfred Rehwinkel (1887 – 1979), the Swedish Ole Hallesby (1879 – 1961) and the English David Fountain (1930 – 2004).  They all wrote relevant books entitled respectively, Conscience (1933), The Voice of Conscience (1956) and Let Conscience Speak (1973).  I have read none of them so am not sure what Candle in the Wind adds to this corpus.  In addition to these relatively modern-day authors, Brady is obviously enamoured by the Puritans.  Indeed, some, especially William Perkins and William Ames, are frequently quoted.  The latter was apparently influenced by Ramist philosophy (p. 233) – not many people know that.  This Puritanophilia peaks in Appendix 3, which is largely given over to a listing of dozens of such men and the titles of their books.  This passed over my head, but, I suppose, is just about justifiably included as an Appendix.

And in conclusion
Let me preface this section with a comment because some readers may think my review is a bit harsh.  I consider it to be honest.  I read too many reviews of poor and average Christian books that are awarded 5 stars.  What are these critics thinking of?  A 5-star book must be destined to become a classic, like Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress or Lloyd-Jones’ Preaching and Preachers.  There have not been many of that calibre written this century.  Moreover, I am well aware of two glowing reviews of Candle in the Wind by Paul Helm and Paul Wells.  What can I say, other than that I disagree with them?

Yes, I did not enjoy this book.  Yet it make me think – never a futile activity.  And, of course, I learned something from it, though not as much as I had hoped.  For a start, I had not realised how much the Bible’s direct teaching on conscience is confined to only the last 10 per cent of the Book.  Then again, I was reminded how human nature is so hugely complex – who can understand the heart, the mind and the affections?  The Puritans certainly gave it more attention than we do.  Perhaps we have been frightened off the subject because disciplines like the neurosciences and psychology are so dominated by atheistic thinking.

Let me close with two of the most valuable quotations from the book.  In discussing 1 Corinthians 10 and how believers differ over matters of conscience, Brady states on p. 153, ‘A strong conscience is not everything, however, nor is Christian freedom.  Love should be our highest goal.’  And then there is Paul’s seminal declaration to Felix as recorded in Acts 24:16, ‘So I strive always to keep my conscience clear before God and man.’  To rediscover and to reapply that dictum from Gary Brady’s book is £9.99 well spent.

*Not so but I'm not surprised that what I think is good order does not pass muster with a scientist
** See Chapter 2 of the book 
*** Harsh                                                                                     

Radio interview about Candle in the Wind

The interview with Janet Mefferd on Candle in the wind, my book on conscience was finally broadcast yesterday. You can hear it here. It is in two sections in the first half hour of the programme. It was a good opportunity to let people know about the book and hopefully increase sales.

Another positive review of Candle in the Wind

This review is in the February Evangelical Times and first appeared here last November
I enjoyed everything about this book. It is a great read on an issue seldom addressed in recent years. Perhaps the absence of books (as well as preaching) on this subject is the reason why some evangelicals have a superficial view of the uses of conscience, and are reticent regarding the function of divine law in the Christian life.
Be that as it may, reading Gary Brady’s book will do anyone the world of good. It is a page-turner; a mine of information, filled with wisdom from the Puritans and beyond, as well as being biblical and pastoral, to boot.
Behind the apparent simplicity of the presentation lies Brady’s deep reflection. He is never unclear. I found myself enjoying pages that I thought I would flip through quickly, such as the chapter on children and the conscience. It’s so easy to forget that ‘the child’s controversy is always with God’ (p.161).
When ‘correcting’, we need to get beyond outward issues to heart concerns. Questions of conscience do not ultimately deal with inbred values or social disciplines; rather, we are facing our ultimate moral regulator, God himself.
Brady examines his subject from every angle, beginning with some general biblical definitions. ‘When we speak of conscience, we are really speaking of an aspect of the heart or the soul, though the word is useful for speaking of a specific function of the soul, namely its moral workings’ (p.24).
Chapters present: the biblical background; the conscience bound by sin; conversion as a conscience awakening, convicting and enlightening work; and the connection with true faith and assurance.
Then follow questions concerning the function of conscience in the Christian life, good, bad or weak. If you did not know that a weak conscience is more likely to accuse you than a strong one (p.120), you had better read Brady. Light will also be shed on those chapters in 1 Corinthians about the weak and strong in relation to idol-meat.
There is a useful chapter regarding the development of conscience in the civil sphere. Perhaps a little more could have been made here of the theoretical impact of Luther and Calvin’s two reigns, and the right of private judgement in, say, Charles Hodge.
Finally, Brady correctly argues that, because conscience is a function of the soul, it is the accuser even down in hell. Moreover, its peaceful disposition will be enjoyed in heaven.
Overall, I enjoyed this book except for one thing: the title. Why did an evangelical publisher inflict this on me? Every time I saw it on my desk, I had horrible images of Elton John behind a piano! ‘Candle of the Lord’ (p.184) would have been more fitting.
Paul Wells Eastbourne
Author Gary Brady
Publisher EP Books ISBN 978-1-78397-042-1
PS The publishers are not to be blamed for the title. I did insist. I wanted to redeem the title!
Pages 242

Recent Encouragements

At the end of last year I had some unexpected opportunities to promote the Candle in the wind book. Firstly, on the last day of Winter term in London Theological Seminary I was able to stand in for someone else due to give a lecture in the pastoralia course, which I was very glad to do. I summarised four chapters of the book and enjoyed the interchange with the students.
Then a little later someone from the show Janet Mefferd Today (who I have worked with in the past) was in touch about an interview by 'phone on the new book. I was more than happy to oblige. Originally it was to be a live interview but the plan was altered. It made me feel a little less nervous. The interview should air before the end of the month. Excuse my cold!
Also at the end of last year I received an email from a pastor in Indonesia saying how much he had appreciated the book on regeneration and in the new year I bumped into a fellow pastor here in the UK who has been preaching through Song of Solomon. Almost in despair at finding the sort of help he was looking for he came across my book Heavenly Love and has found it really helpful. I was so encouraged to hear that.
Others let me know that they are benefiting from the books, most often the commentary on Proverbs.

Kind review of Candle in the Wind

Gary Brady is a present-day John Flavel. Like Flavel the Puritan, a minister in Dartmouth, Gary has been the pastor of an urban church for many years, and as Flavel became used to the ups and downs of such a life so no doubt has Gary. He has been pastor of Childs Hill Baptist Church in north west London since 1983. And like Flavel he is a considerable author, with five books already, and now a sixth, Candle in the Wind – Understanding Conscience in the Light of God’s Word. (EP Books, 2014, 242 pages). This post is by way of a modest celebration of it, and of Gary’s gifts as an author on this great but neglected topic.
Conscience is a permanent resident in every person, a personal moral and spiritual reflex of that very person that it is the conscience of. You have your conscience and I have mine, and mine does not throw a light on you, nor yours a light on me. Properly understood, it is the voice of God, which can be fine-tuned - sometimes too finely - or almost drowned out. It can excuse or accuse. It can thunder or whisper. Whisperings can become full-throated. But it can be almost subverted by the culture, by upbringing, by friends or by the boss, by what we read and by the media.
A strong conscience, how about that? This is a conscience informed by the word of God. God is Lord of the conscience. Gary thinks that Christians with such a weapon, who know what they believe and what and what not to do, should be careful of not bullying the weaker brethren. That is, those sincere believers whose conscience is ill-informed in some way. But a sound conscience is nevertheless a great good. There is a greater thing that parading your conscience, however, and making a thing of it, and that is love or concern for the weaker brethren. ‘…If I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge…but have not love, I am nothing’. This is the best section of the book, thoughtful and wise.
Here are some questions which I don’t think Gary touched on, though he touched on most things, I reckon, The question of whether the operation of conscience leads or follows what we do. Conscience seems to behave in either of these two ways. When you consider doing something, the conscience kicks in, telling you that this is the right thing to do it, and so you do it, or at least try to do it. At other times it is like a rear-view mirror, telling you that what you did was or wasn’t OK. Is this before – or after – behaviour significant? Or does it simply show dull or quick wittedness, as the case may be? The Christian’s conscience, like other things, is imperfectly regenerated, subject to ignorance, bias and weakness. The Christian is a ‘wretched man’ who has a conscience, he or she does not yet possess a perfectly judging and operating moral sense.
Most of Gary’s concerns are with the conscience as it operates within the sphere of the church. Here very definitely God is ‘Lord of the Conscience’, as Perkins and Ames and the Westminster Confession had it. But what about Gary’s hearers when they are at work or at leisure? If things are operating as they should then one cannot expect the same standards at meetings at work to the meetings at church. Ought conscience to operate differently in different circumstances? Is this dangerous, like having double standards? In one place Paul writes ‘I wrote to you in my letter [which unfortunately we do not possess] not to associate with sexually immoral people – not at all meaning the sexually Immoral of this world, or the greedy and swindlers, nor idolaters, since then you would need to go out of the world.’ As Augustine might have put it, church and world are two ‘cities’. Ought a Christian to have two sets of standards, two consciences, one for each city? Don’t we in practice have two standards? When in Rome, do as the Romans do? Is this the place for some casuistry?
As a Baptist, Gary has an interest in liberty of conscience. He notes its development in England in the seventeenth-century. Particular Baptists have a confessional position advocating such liberty from the beginning, though in a restricted form. (Of course as he notes, any freedom of expression must have restrictions.) In this Independents and Baptists were distinct from the Presbyterians and Anglicans, who edged their way to social liberty as it became clear to the powers that be that good Christian people could differ from each other on various matters which did not imperil the integrity of the state. (Socinians and Roman Catholics were another question!) Gary is quite keen on Roger Williams. Gary is uncertain about whether liberty of conscience is the teaching of the New Testament. But surely it can be considered as an application of the principle of 'Whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them, for this is the law and the prophets'. Indeed it might be argued that freedom of conscience is like sanitation and public hygiene, an obvious good. But, alas, a good that it is hard for societies who enjoy it to retain, as we are currently seeing.
What Gary mainly does in his book – tho’ he does not say that he is doing it - is to treat the Christian life from the vantage point of the conscience. In conviction of sin, the voice of conscience is the voice of God. In penitence and faith, the troubled conscience, troubled by sins, can through exercising the faith which justifies, come to enjoy a good conscience, not a witness to failure but to Christ’s victory. But even then it can lapse through carelessness into an ill-formed conscience, a seared conscience, unfeeling. Watchfulness is needed. A Flavelian theme. Gary takes us through all this in a clear, unassuming style. He has a light touch, chatty and unpretentious. Bags of quotations, and much good sense. His favourite writers on the theme seem to be Mark Twain (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn), and John Bunyan in his Holy War. Thanks, Gary, for a wholesome, entertaining and insightful read. May you continue preaching and pen-wielding for many years to come!
Gary’s other books are - Heavenly Wisdom, The 1662 Great Ejection, What Jesus is Doing Now, The Song of Songs and Being Born Again